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关注埃博拉疫情 盘点全球生物安全顶级实验室

行业上下游中国仪表网2014年08月14日 15:06人气:12255

    

法国的让-梅里厄P4实验室  

  【中国仪表网 行业上下游】随着埃博拉疫情的日益严峻,美国疾控中心和世界卫生组织拉响埃博拉疫情全球警报,这也使媒体对埃博拉病毒关注的目光,纷纷转向研究埃博拉病毒的利器——P4实验室。
  
  生物安全实验室共分4级(Biosafety Level 1-4),生物安全4级实验室又常被称为P4实验室,P指Pathogen(病原)or Protection(保护)。生物安全4级实验室是生物安全研究领域的顶级实验室,其造价也是最昂贵的,因此数量很少。即使是在全球范围内,生物安全4级实验室也只有56个,这还包括一些正在建设中的。

全球56家P4实验室

序号       名   字     位   置 建设时间        说   明

1 Virology  Laboratory of the Queensland Department of Health Australia,  Queensland, Coopers Plains    
2 Korea  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) Osong,  Cheongwon county, North Chungcheong province, South Korea 2013  
3 University  of Queensland - Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre (SASVRC) Royal  Women's Hospital Brisbane P3 (BL3) Australia,  Queensland, Herston    
4 Australian  Animal Health Laboratory Australia,  Victoria, Geelong    
5 National  High Security Laboratory Australia,  Victoria, North Melbourne   National  High Security Laboratory Operates under the auspice of the Victoria  Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory.
6 Republican  Research and Practical Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology Belarus,  Minsk   Department  of Molecular Epidemiology & Innovational Biotechnologies
7 National  Microbiology Laboratory Canada,  Manitoba, Winnipeg   Located  at the Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health, it is jointly  operated by the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Food  Inspection Agency.
8 Wuhan  Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences China,  Hubei, Wuhan 2003 Wuhan  Institute of Virology already hosts a BSL-3 laboratory. A distinct BSL-4  facility is currently being built based on P4 standards, the original  technology for confinement developed by France. It will be the first at level  4 in China, under the direction of Shi Zhengli.
9 Biological  Defense Center Czech  Republic, Pardubice, Těchonín 1971,  rebuilt 2003-2007 Located  at the Centrum biologické ochrany (Biological Defense Center)[13]
10 Laboratoire  P4 Jean Mérieux France,  Rhône-Alpes, Lyon Jean  Mérieux laboratory is a co-operation between the Pasteur Institute and  INSERM. Note that in France, it is P4 for Pathogen or Protection level 4.
11 Centre  International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville Gabon   This  facility is operated by a research organization supported by both Gabonese  (mainly) and French governments, and is West Africa's only P4 lab (BSL-4).
12 Robert  Koch Institute Germany,  Berlin   The  facility was licenced for construction by City of Berlin on November 30,  2008.
13 Bernhard  Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine Germany,  Hamburg    
14 Friedrich  Loeffler Institute on the Isle of Riems Germany,  Isle of Riems (Greifswald) 2010 Deals  especially with virology
15 Philipps  University of Marburg Germany,  Marburg 2008 The  facility is licenced to work with genetically modified organisms
16 High  Security Animal Disease Laboratory (HSADL) India,  Bhopal 1998 This  facility deals especially to zoonotic organisms and emerging infectious  disease threats.
17 Centre  for Cellular and Molecular Biology India,  Hyderabad 2009 National  Bio-Safety Level-4 Containment Facility for Human Infectious Diseases &  Clinical Research Facility in Regenerative Medicine.
18 All  India Institute of Medical Sciences India,  New Delhi 1993 Conducts  studies on major pathogenic organisms. Has contributed in discovering new  strains & vaccines.
19 Microbial  Containment Complex India,  Pune 2012 Bio-Safety  Level-IV Laboratory established by ICMR with support from Department of  Science & Technology
20 Azienda  Ospedaliera Ospedale Luigi Sacco Italy,  Lombardy, Milan   A  university hospital in Polo Universitario; it contains two special vehicles  for transporting infectious persons.
21 Istituto  Nazionale Malattie Infettive Italy,  Lazio, Rome   This  facility, (trans.) National Institute of Infectious Diseases, operates within  the Lazzaro Spallanzani Hospital.
22 National  Institute for Infectious Diseases Japan,  Tokyo, Musashimurayama   Located  at National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Department of Virology I; this  lab has the potential of operating as a BSL-4, however it is limited to  perform work on only BSL-3 agents due to opposition from local residents and  communities.
23 Institute  of Physical and Chemical Research Japan,  Ibaraki, Tsukuba   This  is a non-operating BSL-4 facility.
24 Netherlands  National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) Netherlands,  Bilthoven 2009  
25 Cantacuzino  Microbiological Research Institute (INCDMI) Romania,  Bucharest  
26 "Dr.  Carol Davila" Central Military Hospital Romania,  Bucharest  
27 State  Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR Russia,  Novosibirsk Oblast, Koltsovo   It  is one of two facilities in the world that officially hold smallpox. The  other Russian BSL-4 facilities have been dismantled.
28 National  Institute for Communicable Diseases South  Africa, Johannesburg   National  Institute for Communicable Diseases of Special Pathogens Unit is one of only  two BSL-4 facilities in Africa but the only suit laboratory on the continent.
29 Swedish  Institute for Communicable Disease Control Sweden,  Solna   Swedish  Institute for Communicable Disease Control is Scandinavia's P4 facility.
30 University  Hospital of Geneva Switzerland    
31 Spiez  Laboratory Switzerland,  Spiez    
32 Kwen-yang  Laboratory (昆阳实验室) Center of Disease Control Taiwan   Part  of the Department of Health, Taiwan.
33 Preventive  Medical Institute of ROC Ministry of National Defense Taiwan    
34 Health  Protection Agency's Centre for Infections United  Kingdom, Colindale   Located  in the Viral Zoonosis unit.
35 National  Institute for Medical Research United  Kingdom, London  
36 Institute  for Animal Health United  Kingdom, Pirbright    
37 Institute  for Animal Health Compton Laboratory United  Kingdom, Compton  
38 Defence  Science and Technology Laboratory United  Kingdom, Porton Down    
39 Health  Protection Agency United  Kingdom, Porton Down   Special  Pathogens Reference Unit.
40 Health  Protection Agency United  Kingdom, Porton Down   Botulism.
41 Francis  Crick Institute[22] United  Kingdom, London   Under  construction. The UKCMRI will not work on Human Hazard Group 4 agents.
42 Centers  for Disease Control and Prevention United  States, Georgia, Atlanta   Currently  operates in two buildings. One of two facilities in the world that officially  hold smallpox.
43 Georgia  State University United  States, Georgia, Atlanta   Is  an older design "glovebox" facility.
44 National  Bio and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF), Kansas State University United  States, Kansas, Manhattan   Under  construction. Facility to be operated by the Department of Homeland Security,  and replace the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (which is not a BSL-4  facility). Planned to be operational by 2015, but likely delayed.
45 National  Institutes of Health (NIH) United  States, Maryland, Bethesda   Located  on the NIH Campus, it currently only operates with BSL-3 agents.
46 Integrated  Research Facility United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick   Under  construction. This facility will be operated by National Institute of Allergy  and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), it is planned to begin operating at 2009 at  the earliest.
47 National  Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick   Under  construction, it will be operated for the Department of Homeland Security.
48 US  Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick 1969 Old  building
49 US  Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick 2017 New  building, currently under construction
50 National  Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory (NEIDL), Boston University United  States, Massachusetts, Boston   Under  construction by Boston University, building and staff training complete,  waiting for regulatory approval.
51 NIAID  Rocky Mountain Laboratories United  States, Montana, Hamilton   National  Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
52 Kent  State University, Kent Campus United  States, Ohio, Kent   Operates  as a clean lab at level 3 for training purposes. Scheduled for conversion to  a hot level 4 lab in response to a bioterrorism event in the USA.
53 Galveston  National Laboratory, National Biocontainment Facility United  States, Texas, Galveston   Opened  in 2008, facility is operated by the University of Texas Medical Branch.[23]
54 Shope  Laboratory United  States, Texas, Galveston   Operated  by the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB).
55 Texas  Biomedical Research Institute United  States, Texas, San Antonio   The  only privately owned BSL-4 lab in the US.
56 Division  of Consolidated Laboratory Services United  States, Virginia, Richmond   This  facility is part of the Department of General Services of the Commonwealth of  Virginia. so called "surge" BSL-4 capacity.    
  
  P4实验室适用于对人体具有高度危险性,通过气溶胶途径传播或传播途径不明,目前尚无有效的疫苗或治疗方法的致病微生物及其毒素。与上述情况类似的不明微生物接触,也必须在P4实验室中进行。正因为如此,有人把P4实验室叫做“魔鬼实验室”,这个实验室中装有特殊的空调系统,进入这里的空气温度与湿度都是预先设定好的,过滤程度达到99.999%,能保障空气在整个环境中一小时循环多次。实验室采用定向负压系统,其核心区的压强达到负40帕,这样实验室空气的流动,只能是通过高效过滤器从外面进来,而保证实验室内的空气不向外流动。
  
  全球各地P4实验室的设计不尽相同,典型的P4实验室由更衣区、过滤区、缓冲区、消毒区、核心区组成。在实验室的四周装有高效空气过滤器。到达实验室的核心区,总共有10道门,最里面的7道门是互锁的,也就是说,如果一道门没有关好,另一道门肯定打不开,这样避免空气的流通。更衣区依次为外更衣室、淋浴室和内更衣室。消毒区为化学淋浴室,工作人员离开主实验室时首先经过化学淋浴消毒正压防护服表面。核心区任何相邻的门之间都有自动连锁装置,防止两个相邻的门被同时打开。对于不能从更衣室携带进出主实验室的材料、物品和器材,应在主实验室墙上设置具有双门结构的高压灭菌锅、浸泡消毒槽、熏蒸室或带有消毒装置的通风传递窗,以便进行传递或消毒。核心区里配有生物安全柜、超低温冰箱、离心机、电热细胞培养柜、显微镜和实验台、小型动物实验室等。生物安全柜顶上有一个直径0.5米左右的粗管子,直接通到房顶,它也是负压状态的,一些主要的操作都需要在生物安全柜中进行。
  
  从P4实验室拿出的相关的物品必须通过高压灭菌锅消毒后,再用洁净袋充分包装,然后通过传递窗传到准备间。离开P4时,核心区的工作人员要相互间把全身从上到下消毒一遍才能走到缓冲间,在缓冲间除去外层防护服、口罩、外层手套,然后将这些放入灭菌容器或消毒袋内。关闭实验室门之后,再取下防护眼镜,将其放入传递窗进行消毒。然后,工作人员经过另外一个缓冲间,退到准备间。在这里他们才可以取下身上所有的防护器具,立即在沐浴室洗澡后,才可离开实验室。P4实验室有严格、复杂的管理程序,为了保证P4实验室的绝对安全,只有得到批准和持有磁卡通行证的人才能进入,有的通过指纹门禁系统进入,而且所有出入的人员都由电脑记录在案。
  
  这56个生物安全顶级实验室遍布世界五大洲,其中非洲大陆只有两个,分别位于南非和加蓬。单论国家而言,美国最多,有15个,其中包括一个正在建设中的、隶属军队的实验室,还包括一个归私人所有的P4实验室,位于Texas Biomedical Research Institute,德州生物医学研究所。
  
  我国唯一的一个P4实验室,位于中科院武汉病毒所,目前尚在建设中。该实验室依托于武汉大学和中科院武汉病毒所的病毒学国家重点实验室,由世界排名第一的法国P4实验室合作建设,前期基础建设投入约2亿。
  
  根据媒体报道,如果进展顺利,该实验室到今年年底会有一个阶段性的成果,但是距离能够使用还有一段距离。相信目前的埃博拉疫情必须会推动该实验室的建设速度。
  
  除了埃博拉病毒,一些高致病性病毒,如马尔堡病毒、拉萨(Lassa)病毒、克里米亚-刚果出血热病毒、玻利维亚和阿根廷出血热病毒等都必须要在P4实验室操作。
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